|Publication Type:||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication:||2009|
|Authors:||Starr, J. R., Ford B. A.|
|Keywords:||bootstrap, Carex, Cariceae Phylogeny, characters, classification, evolution, inference, inflorescence, interface, intergenic spacer, morphology, SEQUENCE DATA, vignea cyperaceae|
The goal of this study was to review the impact of DNA sequence analyses on our understanding of Cariceae phylogeny, classification and evolution. To explore character evolution, 105 taxa from four different studies were included in an nrDNA ITS + ETS 1f analysis of all recognized genera (Carex, Cymophyllus, Kobresia, Schoenoxiphium, Uncinia) and Carex subgenera (Carex, Psyllophora, Vignea, Vigneastra). As in previous analyses, four major Cariceae clades were recovered: (1) a "Core Carex Clade" (subg. Carex, Vigneastra, Psyllophora p.p); (2) A "Vignea Clade" (subg. Vignea, Psyllophora p.p.); (3) a "Schoenoxiphium Clade" (Schoenoxiphium, subg. Psyllophora p.p.), and (4) a "Core Unispicate Clade" (Uncinia, Kobresia, subg. Psyllophora p.p.). All studies provide strong support (86-100% BS) for the Core Carex and Vignea Clades, but only weak to moderate support (< 50%-78% BS) for the Core Unispicate and Schoenoxiphium Clades. The relationships of these groups are unresolved. Studies suggest that Carex is either paraphyletic with respect to all Cariceae genera or to all genera except Schoenoxiphium. Kobresia is a grade, but Uncinia and possibly Schoenoxiphium are monophyletic. The monotypic Cymophyllus is indistinct from Carex subg. Psyllophora species. Character analyses indicate that inflorescence proliferation and reduction have occurred in all major clades, and that the Cariceae's unisexual flowers have evolved from perfect flowers. The ancestor to Cariceae possessed a multispicate inflorescence with cladoprophylls and female spikelets with tristigmatic gynoecia and closed utricles. This morphology is most similar to extant Carex subg. Carex species, which contradicts the nearly unanimous assumption that the highly compound inflorescences of Schoenoxiphium are primitive. Since taxonomic sampling and statistical support for phylogenies have generally been poor, we advocate the temporary maintenance of the four traditional Carex subgenera with androgynous unispicate species placed within subg. Psyllophora and dioecious and gynaecandrous unispicate species distributed amongst subgenera Carex and Vignea. A collective effort focused on developing new nuclear markers, on increasing taxonomic and geographic sampling, and on studying development within the context of phylogeny, is needed to develop a phylogenetic classification of Cariceae.