|Publication Type:||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication:||2009|
|Authors:||Vrijdaghs, A., Muasya, M., Goetghebeur, P., Caris, P., Nagels, A., Smets E.|
|Keywords:||classification, Cyperaceae, cyperoideae, floral ontogeny, flowers, genera, homology, inflorescence, mapanioideae, morphology, origin, perianth, Phylogeny, sem, spikelet|
Within the Cyperoideae, which comprise all Cyperaceae except the Mapanioideae, several questions of homology are discussed and reinterpreted based on results of our SEM and LM floral ontogenetic studies. In all species studied, spikelets are interpreted as being indeterminate, with spirally to distichously arranged glumes, each subtending (or not) a flower. Floral development starts with the formation of two lateral stamen primordia, simultaneously with, or followed by the formation of a third, abaxial stamen primordium. Perianth parts, if present, originate only after the formation of the androecium, simultaneously with the appearance of an annular ovary primordium, surrounding a central ovule primordium. Perianth parts vary in number and morphology, and, where present, perianth development follows a general pattern. Three (or two) stigma primordia are formed on the top of the rising ovary wall. In dimerous gynoecia, stigma primordia originate either dorsiventrally, resulting in a laterally flattened ovary/nutlet, or laterally, resulting in a dorsiventrally flattened ovary/nutlet. We conclude that in all species studied the spikelet and floral development occurs according to a general, scirpoid, ontogenetic pattern, which we illustrate using new spikelet and floral ontogenetic results in Eleocharis palustris and other species. Spikelet and floral ontogeny in species with apparently deviating morphologies, can be traced back to the general ontogenetic pattern.